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Emil Berliner, talking Machine, gE's First toaster. General Electric, general Electric's ge first toaster was a two-slice model with a porcelain base and a warming tray on top, the d-12. Such products were made possible by the perfection in 1907 of long-life nickel-chrome alloy electrical resistors. The exposed heating coils were a hazard, but they were tested and approved in 1909 by Underwriters Laboratories (founded aging 1894) along with a westinghouse model. The d-12, built on assembly tables by women, was widely distributed and would remain in production until 1913. Such appliances were traditionally placed on a special wooden "cooking table" which had electrical outlets for individual appliances such as water kettles, cookers and pop-corn poppers, and a separate oven. Ge produced its first one in 1905. A true "electric cook stove" was not on the market until 1910 (see hughes Range). General Electric was formed in 1892 with the consolidation of the Edison General Electric Company and the Thomson-houston Company. It entered the "housewares" business with an electric desk fan in 1889. In 1900 it established a research laboratory under consultant Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865-1923 the first of its kind. Ge produced its first electric iron in 1904. By 1908 the research lab had a staff.
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Richardson, houseware, victrola model xvi, berliner, Emil and Johnson, Eldridge. Copy The victor Talking Machine company, founded in 1901 by Emil Berliner and Eldridge. Johnson, introduced the victrola at a price of 200. Unlike previous phonographs, which were toy-like turntables with a large speaker horn to amplify the sound, this was housed in an elegant wood cabinet in several contemporary (for the time) furniture styles. The speaker horn and turntable mechanism were totally concealed, and there were convenient storage compartments for records. This Victrola design, by johnson, and in particular a refined version of 1907, transformed the phonograph into a popular household item, and set the pattern of wood cabinetry enclosures later imitated by radios and television sets well into the 1950s. Berliner (1851-1929) druk had in 1888 invented the first flat rubber disc system, an improvement over Thomas. Edison's original 1877 cylinder system, and incorporated it into his 1896 Gramophone. Johnson, also an inventor, improved the sound quality of Berliner's system with a spring-driven motor. Together, berliner and Johnson formed the victor Talking Machine company in 1901, which was acquired by rca in 1929.
forward point of the soleplate, to better iron buttonholes and pleated materials. Customers loved the "hot point" on the iron. Richardson, as a meter reader at the Ontario (California) Power Company in 1903, had developed an electric iron and distributed a number of free samples to customers. But ironing was always done on tuesdays (Monday was wash day and at that time, power was only provided at night, for lighting. Richardson reasoned that sales of electric appliances could only succeed with the cooperation of power companies, so he convinced his employer to generate electricity all day on tuesdays, so his irons could be used. The 1905 iron with the "hot point" became the first commercially successful electric laundry iron, and was formally named the hotpoint iron in 1907. In 1912, the company itself was named the hotpoint Electric heating Company. In 1918, the hotpoint company merged with the hughes Electric heating Company (see hughes Electric Range, 1910) and the heating device section of General Electric, to form the Edison Electric Appliance company, with Hughes as president. The new company produced Hotpoint brand name products, first the iron, and in 1919, the first Hotpoint electric range. In 1931, the Edison Electric Appliance company became the Edison General Electric Company, and in 1934, the hotpoint brand name was integrated into general Electric production.
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Some of the post-war h-d designs were worked on by Brooks Stevens (1911-1995). In the 1950s a film, The wild Ones, starring Marlon Brando, branded motorcycles as weapons of counter-cultural elements; gangs, to be specific. This non-traditional trend continued in the 1960s, with a book by robert Pirsig called Zen and the Art of Motorcycle maintenance, which nevertheless captured the interest of many industrial designers with its message of product excellence and quality. In 1969, motorcycles embodied the counter-culture youth image in the film, easy rider, starring Dennis Hopper, peter Fonda and Jack nicholson. In addition to this 1960s nivea stigma of a fringe market, harley davidson was suffering hard times due to competitive japanese imports like honda and Kawasaki. The company was sold to amf in 1969. In 1975 a windjammer motorcycle aerodynamic wind-deflector was designed and produced by Craig Vetter which set a new typeform for the ways motorcycles look. Japanese prevage designs were also changing the image of cycles into that of stylish sport vehicles. The counter-culture image faded. In 1981, harley-davidson was re-acquired by its original management and by 1991, was producing 60,000 cycles per year and struggling to keep up with demand. A real turn around success story.
After the war in 1918, general Motors suffered a severe financial decline. A major stockholder was the wealthy. Dupont de nemours Company, which sent pierre dupont to manage. He bought Chevrolet Motor., whose major investor, william. Olds Motor Works, vehicle, william. First Harley davidson, harley, william, the first Harley-davidson motorcycle was produced in Milwaukee in 1902 and launched in 1903 by william Harley and the davidson brothers, william, walter, and Arthur. The werner Brothers in France had been manufacturing bicycles with attached engines since 1897, but Harley integrated the engine into the frame. In 1936, a new Harley-davidson 61 el motor-cycle, designed by its founders, was introduced. It became known as the original "Hog." After World War ii, harley-davidson was one of the only two surviving motorcycle manufacturers. Indian, the other, produced its last cycle in 1953.
Academic Programs minneapolis College of Art and DesignOrdinary cars could go no faster than 30 mph. The bullet-nosed, low design of the pirate set the style for Indianapolis race cars, starting in 1911, for many years. In 1903, buick was founded by william. Durant, a race car driver, and the first pergamon buick appeared. Durant founded General Motors in 1908 as a holding company to buy out various car manufacturers, including Cadillac (in 1909 Oldsmobile and oakland (later called Pontiac). Ford demanded 8 million, and Durant declined to buy. In 1910, durant left active management of General Motors, and founded Chevrolet. He engaged louis Chevrolet, a swiss-born racing driver, to design his new car, which was introduced in 1913. The new president of General Motors in 1910 became Charles. He retired in 1916, and purchased the jeffery motor Company from Thomas. Jeffery, who had founded the company in 1879 to make rambler bicycles, and had introduced the first Rambler car in 1902. Now, it's new 1917 model was called a nash.
The first us gasoline-powered auto to be produced in quantity, the 425 Runabout, was introduced by review Olds Motor Works, founded in 1897 by ransom. Features included the first "speed meter invented last year by. Jones, and a new gracefully-curved dashboard. The., 650. Car was priced at 650, and 425 were built the first year. It was produced until 1907, and some were used by the us postal Service as the first mail trucks. As a promotional stunt, test driver roy. Chapin drove one from Detroit to new York, although there were only 200 miles of hard-surfaced roads in the. Olds built a race car, the pirate, and driver. Thomas set the first land speed record in its class at daytona beach, fl.38 mph.
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Before that, one had to hand-crank the phone to provide enough power for a call. A connection could still only guerlain be made by giving the name of the person to be reached to a telephone operator. This is what Strowger changed. Strowger soon became a strong competitor of Bell. He introduced a tabletop dial model in 1901, which was cleaner in design than the bell model. In 1902, he introduced a wall telephone with a dial disk, this time with actual finger holes, but still only 170 degrees around the disk. By 1905, a "long distance" finger hole had been added. The last known Strowger model in in 1907. Strowger patents presumably expired in 1914, and he or his company is never heard from again. Not until 1919 did Bell introduce the dial system. Alman Brown Strowger, automatic Electric Company, phone, curved Dash Oldsmobile, durant, william.
But because of its popular appeal, rca, now Thomson Electronics, re-introduced it in cream 1990, adding a smaller canine companion, "Chipper representing the company's semiconductor-based future in electronics. Emil Berliner, phone, us gramophone company, first dial Telephone. Strowger, Alman Brown, the first dial telephone was introduced in 1897 by the automatic Electric Company, founded in 1891 by Alman Brown Strowger, a kansas undertaker. In 1889, convinced that the bell "central exchange" was diverting his incoming calls to a rival embalmer, Strowger invented the automatic switchboard system, which was controlled by a number-dialing system. The system was first installed in 1892 in laporte,. In Strowger's 1897 model telephone, however, the rotary dial had not holes, but depressions similar to gear teeth, along about 170 degrees of the edge of the dial disc. The telephone, of course, was invented by Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) in 1876. The first commercial exchange was opened in 1878 (with 12 users and in 1879, the multiple switchboard system was invented by engineer Leroy. Firman, making the telephone a commercial success with 250,000 users by 1890. Up until 1894, when Bell's original patents expired, bell Telephone company had a virtual monopoly on the market. They had brought successful infringement suits against at least 600 would-be competitors. The company had, in 1896, just introduced the "Common Battery" system, with a power source at a central exchange.
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Berliner Gramophone, berliner, Emil, an improved version of the Gramophone, a talking machine invented by Emil Berliner (1851-1929) in 1888, and made since 1894 using a patented hard rubber disc, was introduced by berliner's us gramophone company. In 1901, berliner formed the victor Talking Machine goji company with Camden, nj inventor Eldridge. Johnson who improved the disc quality of what was now called a phonograph "record" system. Berliner's system was hand-cranked and lacked a constant pitch, sounding (to johnson) like a "partly-educated parrot with a sore throat and a cold." Johnson added a spring-driven motor. The new system revolutionized the phonograph industry, because the "records" were compact for storage and durable enough to avoid normal damage during usage, and the sound quality was much improved. Edison (1847-1931 of course, had invented the original phonograph in 1877, using a wax cylinder on his first model m of 1888. His Model a of 1898 still used a steel cylinder covered with tinfoil, and by the model f of 1911, his was the last company still using the now-outdated cylinder system. The new 1901 Victor product used an image of a dog, "Nipper" listening to "his master's voice" on a phonograph. The image was from an 1898 painting by English artist Francis Barraud, sold in 1899 to berliner's Gramophone company Ltd. In London, and patented in 1900. American rights were sold to the victor Talking Machine company. The company was purchased by rca in 1929, and they acquired rights to the trademark which was used extensively until 1968.